Policy Change Process of Suwon City’s Participatory Budgeting System Applying Kingdon’s Policy Stream Framework


  • Kwang Won Lee Hanseo University, Department of Aviation and Public Administration
  • Hye-Jung Kang Gyeongsang National University, Institution of Human Rights and Social Development




participatory budget system, policy change, policy stream framework of Kingdon, Suwon City Government, local government


This study aims to analyse the amendment process of the resident participatory budgeting ordinance of the Suwon City Government by applying Kingdon's Policy Stream Framework, and to explore ways to activate the participatory budgeting system. This study examines the three streams in the Kingdon’s Policy Stream Framework influenced by the revision of the participatory budgeting ordinance and identifies who played a leading role. In particular, this study analyses to resolve the structural limitation of the system and suggests ways to revitalize the system. As a result, it is necessary to audit the political stream of Kingdon’s 3 policy stream in order to legislate a new system such as the participatory budgeting system. The political stream is the most influential in deciding whether to introduce participatory budgeting. It is also important to make a cooperative network among local government, local council and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in order to solve the structural limitations of the participatory budgeting system, such as the lack of professionalism and representatives of the residents.


Ahn, S. M. & Lee, Y. (2008) The case study of participatory Budgeting: In Dong-ku, Ulsan, The Korean Journal of Local Government Studies, 11(4), pp. 201–222.

Baiocchi, G. (2001) Participation, Activism, and politics: The Porto Alegre experiment and deliberative democratic theory, Politics & Society, 29(1), pp. 43–72.

Bäutigam, D. (2004) The people's budget? Politics, participation, and pro-poor policy, Development Policy Review, 22(6), pp. 653–668.

Baumgartner, F. R. & Jones, B. D. (1993) Agendas and instability in American politics (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).

Blackey, H. (2008) Participatory budgeting in the UK: A challenge to the system?, Participatory Learning and Action, 58(1), pp. 61–65.

Bruns-Martos, M. L. & Lapsley, I. (2020) Democracy, governmentality and transparency: participatory budgeting in action, In: Public Budgeting in Search for an Identity (New York, NY: Routledge), pp. 02–117.

Cabannes. Y. & Lipietz, B. (2015) The democratic contribution of participatory budgeting (No. 15-168) (London, UK: London School of Economics and Political Science).

Chang, N. S. (2006) Operational status of participatory budgeting system and successful development plan in Korea, Korean Public Administration and Policy Studies, 4(1), pp. 1–24.

Cohen, M. D., March, J. G. & Olsen, J. P. (1972) A garbage can model of organizational choice, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), pp. 1–25.

Fölscher, A. (2007) Participatory budgeting in Asia, In: Shah, N. (ed.) Participatory Budgeting (Washington, DC: The World Bank), pp. 157–190.

Falanga, R. & Lüchmann. L. H. H. (2020) Participatory budgets in Brazil and Portugal: Comparing patterns of dissemination, Policy Studies, 41(6), pp. 603–622.

Franklin, A. L. & Ebdon, C. (2020) Participatory budgeting in Philippines, Chinese Public Administration Review, 11(1), pp. 60–74.

Givel, M. (2010) The evolution of the theoretical foundations of punctuated equilibrium theory in public policy, Review of Policy Research, 27(2), pp. 187–198.

Herzberg, C. & Röcke, A. (2008) Participatory Budgeting in Europe: Potentials and Challenges, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32(1), pp. 164–178.

Kang, Y. H. (2011) The adoption of citizens' participatory budgeting system and ideology in local government, Korean Journal of Local Government & Administration Studies, 23(2), pp. 29–54.

Kingdon, J. W. (2011) Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, 2nd edition (New York, NY: Longman).

Kingdon, J. W. (1995) Agendas, alternatives and public policies, 2nd Edition (Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company).

Kingdon, J. W. (1984) Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (Boston, MA: Brown and Company), pp. 205–218.

Koonings, K. (2004) Strengthening citizenship in Brazil’s democracy: Local participatory governance in Porto Alegre, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 23(1), pp. 79–99.

Krenjova, J. & Raudla, R. (2013) Participatory budgeting at the local level: Challenges and opportunities for new democracies, Administrative Culture/Halduskultuur, 14(1), pp.18–46.

Kwack, C. G. (2005) Designing Participatory Budgeting(PB) model and its operational system for local government, The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 10(1), pp. 247–278.

Lee, K. W. (2018) Analysis of the type for participatory institutions and participatory committees through participatory budget system ordinance in the country, Korean Policy Sciences Review, 22(2), pp. 77–102.

Lee, K. W. (2013) A study on the factors of policy change in the resident participation budget system: Focusing on the cases of Suwon city and Seosan city, Journal of Local Government Studies, 25(3), pp. 255–283.

The Ministry of Public Administration and Security (2010a) Suggestion of a participatory budgeting system: The Ministry of Public Administration and Security prepares an ordinance model for participatory budgeting system operation and notifies to local governments (Seoul, Republic of Korea: Ministry of Public Administration and Security).

The Ministry of Public Administration and Security (2010b) Check the financial conditions in my areas at a glance: The Ministry of Public Administration and Security analyzes the basic financial status of all local governments, Local Treasury, available at: http://lofin.mopas.go.kr/ (February, 14, 2023).

The Suwon City Government (2012a) The 2012 proceedings of participant budgeting system workshop (Suwon, Republic of Korea: The Suwon City Government).

The Suwon City Government (2012b) The 2012 participatory budgeting with residents. The 2012 participant budgeting system workshop report (Suwon, Republic of Korea: The Suwon City Government).

The Suwon City Government (2011) The 2011 Implementation Plan of the Resident Participant Budgeting System in Suwon (Suwon, Republic of Korea: The Suwon City Government).

The Suwon City Council (2011) A study on institutionalization for the establishment of participatory budgeting system in Suwon (Suwon, Republic of Korea: The Suwon City Council).

The Suwon Special City Council (2023) The Suwon Special City Council, available at: http://councils.suwon.ne.kr (March 15, 2023).

The participatory budget network of Suwon City (2012) A look into resident participatory budgeting activities of Suwon City (Suwon, Republic of Korea: The Suwon City Government).

Weible, C. M. (2006) An advocacy coalition framework approach to stakeholder analysis: Understanding the political context of California marine protected area policy, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 17(1), pp. 95–117.

Zahariadis, N. (2014) Ambiguity and multiple streams, Theories of the policy process, 3(1), pp. 25–59.